Caro – History of the oldest surviving candy factory in the country

The wood industry of Michigan and the 19th century were close together. The wood moguls swept the country like a hurricane, as they did in New England and New York, destroying the last big stand in the world's last white pine forest. At their end, dying towns, hundreds of miles of combustible debris, eroded manufacturing swamps and leftover portions, they had traded some of their bright heritage to some of the coins.

If a city has a chance to find a place in the 20th century, then it's a city, one of them, Caro, Cairo some inexplicable reasons later, need an industry . The mayor and other leaders of the town cast one across the country. In Caro, an entrepreneur named Thomas Cranage built a sugar factory in Essexville on the outskirts of Bay City, another woody town looking for an economic foothold to replace wood. Cranage's test results sparked enthusiasm and quickly replaced the impasse of the deadlocked community leaders' hearts and minds.

Cranage traveled to Nebraska, Utah, New Mexico and California, where he witnessed the process and talked with the technicians and then hired them.

Michigan Sugar Company not only benefited from good planning, but also benefited greatly from good planning, weather. The first beet harvest and processing season in the country's history (known as the "campaign" in the beet sugar industry), each account has achieved remarkable success. Farmers from the average annual harvest of 10.33 acres of 10.3 tons, a total of 32 047 tons of sugar beet. Beet sugar content of 12.93% on average, the purity of 82%, the factory extracted 5,685,552 pounds of sugar. Sugar content of 12.93% means that each purchase of one ton of sugar beet contains 258.6 pounds of sugar. From this point of view, the new sugar factory packed 169 pounds, which is equivalent to a total sugar recovery of 59%, which is a good result of the first movement

mainly in Caro's leaders , Tuscola's Center for Business Activity, is Charles Montague. The town waited to learn Mr. Montague's views on sugar conversation.

When Michigan began to pay attention to the prospect of sugar, Montagu was fifty-two years old. He has been successful in many areas, including banking, agriculture, timber milling, merchandising and manufacturing. In addition to owning and operating the town's hotels, he also operates local telephone systems and electrical lighting companies

If a sugar refinery is to be built in a town, it requires an outstanding citizen to board a car, Creating a passion – enough to shake the dollar away from hidden places – enough to allow farmers to consider favorably raising beets that can make town people rich. As it would prove that Carlo was one of the few Michigan communities that did not need to generate investment from the community. In Detroit, 90 miles to the south, eager investors looking for mature opportunities near the town of Vasa, living in a man's roaming eyes never stop looking for opportunities

Richard Hood live In the cozy Vasser, a small city named after Mathew Vassar, the founder of Vassar University. He has been a European road for many years, as a UK buyer of agricultural products. He saw his first beet field in Germany twenty years ago, saw flourishing factories in the vicinity of towns, hiring laborers, buying goods and paying taxes to local governments, generally leading to a continuing boom, Citizens have been denied direct or indirect access to the treasure that has been formed by the beet field

Capless looking for ways to repeat the success of German farmers. When lucky, an ad appeared in the Chicago newspaper, by August Maritzen, a young architect, recently married, gave up the honeymoon from his time to launch a manufacturer in the German manufacturer's name that could be pronounced by most US People only when they first filled their mouth with marble. It is A. Wernicke Maschinenbau Aktiengesellschaft of Halle, Germany. Hoodless responded to the advertisement, in return, Maritzen offered about $ 4,000 (more than $ 80,000 in modern dollars) if Hoodless could generate enough interest to establish a factory in Carlo

On the one hand, Charlie Montague Charles Montague) is a wealthy man, and he is very fond of opportunities and technology, which is his control of local telephone and lighting companies, a new bright spot in late 19th century technology, on the other hand, in an experienced factory architect Wernicke , In the United States to establish factories. To help, he turned to two friends, Fred Meade, who had been married to Montagues over the years, and John Wilcie. Wheat is a lawyer, his wife is Maria Montague, Charles Montagu's sister

No cap after the assembly of a citizen committee to become Carlo sugar company's predecessor. Committee member Fred Slocum also served as editor of Tuscola County's advertisers and promoted the idea in his news section. Farmers near Caro, aware of the great excitement caused by the Essexville experiment, Charlie Montague and his colleague, banker John Sely who won in the mining of coal. He was also the vice president of Sebewaing Coal Company; an organization led by Spencer O. Fisher, who also joined Michigan Sugar Corporation in Essexville and subsequently became president of Sai Wan Sugar Company

From the ball, he went to the terminal area to consider the competitive offer for factory building. In fact, Wernicke's representative Max Schroeder joined Montague and Seeley to Detroit on a night in January, 1899. The deals in the making are hot. The great fear is that some other towns will beat Carlo's punches from investing dollars away from Tuscola County.

A week, the city breathed three people together in Detroit to meet with important financiers. In his "The Sugar Tramp-1954", Daniel Gutben reports on a telegram received by the Caro Organizing Committee announcing the investment capitalists investing in the plant and awarding Wernicke its construction contract. According to Tuscola County's advertisers, Pandemonium is "supreme". Seeley alone on a Tuesday night train, a story tells a Caro's memory of life, passing down every descendant, recorded in Daniel Gutben's chronicle. This is a story that reveals how Charles Montague has persuaded some metropolitan wheelers and dealers to invest heavily in Michigan's second beet sugar mills

No one questioned Wernick's construction of a factory Four thousand miles from its base in a foreign country whose language, customs and economic conditions differ markedly from those of the country. No board of directors has any experience with sugar beets, and the board does not have to hire a company with that experience. After all, Wernicke is a sugar specialist, claiming to have more than 200 projects, one of which has just been completed in Australia. It also does not matter because Wernicke, who has been running the heat, has signed a contract to ensure that the new plant will cut 500 tons of beets daily for at least 30 days, three cents per pound, and now sells six in Chicago

A new factory, even a factory that lacks the shortcomings of a foreign plant, can run 500 tons per day during its first voyage, unheard of. Inevitable architectural problems always cause delays; fine-tuning will prevent the entire sectioning ability from several weeks to sometimes several months. Adding to the combination is the fact that the plant crew is more accustomed to walking under the plow or felling trees than to operate boilers, engines, diffusers, vacuum cookers and evaporators all in perfect harmony. A year ago, the builder of the Essexville plant missed a guarantee that producing sugar, at 35 cents per pound, and paying for expensive out-of-court settlements, or the fact that Wernicke was unknown or dismissed for a moment Unreasonable confidence. In addition, Wernicke agreed to finance $ 300,000 of the estimated $ 400,000 in construction costs.

This is a great deal for Caro and its Detroit investors. It is getting better and better over time. The village committee, as an additional incentive, purchased 100 acres of land in two packages, one of which belonged to Charles Montague and sent it to the factory owner, one of which was Monta ancient. Caro Water joined the deal in the context of free daily supply of up to 500,000 gallons of spring water

Thus, Carlo because Montagu's energy and headless ambitions and the will of a town will not be Forgotten and found himself to be a beneficiary of the factory paid mainly by an outside investor. In addition to the original Caro Sugar Company, the organizers on January 30, 1899 set up a Peninsula Sugar Refining Company, with 30,000 shares of par value of $ 10. By the same year in August, the capital jumped to $ 500,000 and in February 1902 it jumped again when it climbed to $ 750,000. Its final increment occurred in September 1902, when it developed to an even $ 1 million – 100,000 shares of $ 10.00 denomination

The moneyman included Detroit industrialist Charles Bewick after several years of investing in East Tawas And Henry B. Joy, who in 1905 became president of the Packard Motor Company. Joy and his family invested in a number of Michigan sugar mills, including sugar mills in Alma, Croswell and Bay City. Truman Newberry, his brother and co-founder of Packard Motors, also invested in Caro and became a director with Joy. Newbury would become a successful bidder for the United States Senate seat in Michigan in 1918, defeating Henry Ford, another short-lived fame looking for the same post. (Newberry's name lasts longer in Michigan's Upper Peninsula, where they named a town of Newberry, commemorating his father's thoughtfulness, cutting down all the hardwoods he could find and turning them into charcoal.)

David Cady and Gilbert Lee, owner of a large wholesale food distribution in Detroit, controlled them nearly 5,000 shares. Gilbert Lee moved into the presidential chair while Henry Joy settled the vice president.

Within a few years sugar trust came to the town, and everything changed. American Sugar Refineries in the newspaper called the Sugar Foundation, in 1901 and 1902 moved into Michigan, began to absorb sugar beet sugar fast. Now is Charlie Montague, whose energy and drive assembly parts make the company. Also John Sely, his friends and partners. Richard Hoodless, who started it all, never list to the shareholders

By 1903, the shareholders' list reflected some of the top names of the sugar trusts. One of the most important is the American sugar refining company's legal adviser Charles B. Warren, his 22,001 shares occupy the 1904 list of shareholders. The second shareholder is Thomas B. Washington, of Boston, Massachusetts, and is a director of American Sugar Refining and holds 15,667 shares. He will become president of Sugar Trust four years after his death at Henry O. Havemeyer. The third is Lowell Palmer, executive director of American Sugar Refining, which holds 10,126 shares. Together, the three control 48% of the peninsula sugar refining companies. An interesting feature of the list of shareholders is the absence of Caro residents' names, except for a few acquired residents, employees of sugar mills.

American Sugar Refineries, which monopolizes its monopolistic tendencies in the daily newspaper and harasses the Federal Court of 13,000 shareholders of the 1890 Sherman Antitrust Act, who have been enjoying since 1894 Stable dividends, 12% per year. An underrated aspect of sugar trusts requires companies under its jurisdiction to produce high-quality products at low cost and to provide expert consultants for the distribution of technical information, supervisory training and staffing, and inspection facilities from the factory to the plant [19459003

But in 1899, Caro's interest in the village was not in the area of ​​high finance or corporate philosophy, but in the hundreds of workers needed to board, food, clothes and other necessities and luxuries, causing the cash register to sound all about town. Men, money, equipment and building materials poured into the village. 48 units of equipment plus 6 million bricks and 1,000 stones quickly entered. Three hundred workers, including bricklayers, earn fifty cents an hour, ordinary laborers fifteen cents, apprentices electrician five cents, creating a buzzing activity when the snow melts in April and October 23 At the end of the day, Principal Georg Bartsch, a noted expert in the sugar industry, won the plant operations in the crystallization and vacuum pot operation expertise

New Beet Sugar Performance Guaranteed Puzzles Those Who Dare Publish Their- And will soon plague Wernicke. The plant described by Gutleben, while avoiding some of the American preferences in terms of materials, is still the most important in plant design. It has four four-effect evaporators made of wrought iron, providing a heating surface with a total area of ​​8,911 square feet, two evaporating surfaces with a diameter of 9-1 / 2 feet by 13 feet, including 753 square feet And a centrifuge using steam nozzles for final washing of the sugar. Six 700-cubic-foot spray-cooled vacuum-filled molds mounted on the bottom of the pan to accelerate cooling, a modern feature that improves throughput. Nine water tube boilers equipped with mechanical burners provide sufficient steam supply. Concrete floors, separated from the earth and clay according to the day's luxury of the Michigan factory standards

Two significant differences between the American design factory and the German design factory caused some immediate rancor. The first is the American management style that requires the supervisor to inspire the invention of this phrase, "Managing Your Feet, not in Your Seat", while the German method requires a Field Marshal who expeditions to send an aide to gather information forward

In addition, the European approach to management requires confidentiality between management and management, and in addition, technical personnel retain their knowledge to themselves and share them only with their sons or those who have learned a great deal. Department of the factory in full compliance with European management style. As a result, the Caro plant is made up of a number of separate rooms or departments whose impact is to impede communication and increase the number of labor required to operate the plant. Couriers are rushed to deliver orders and information between rooms, not always in time as the situation requires. This arrangement will make it difficult to expand the plant in the next few years; the expansion of one region is usually at the expense of another. The Kilby-built plant, built by Joseph Kilby of Cleveland, Ohio, by many sugar factory chief builders, argues that, on the contrary, it provides ample room to allow for a fivefold increase in capacity for two and more generations of continuous development ,

However, Wernicke's record is excellent from a practical and fair point of view. From 1 March 1899 to 23 October of the same year, German companies shipped most of their factories from Germany. It then designed and built a complete operating facility in a relatively new industry in a foreign country in less than seven months, becoming the first of eight beet sugar mills built in Michigan in 1899, Then making it the second such factory in Michigan after Essexville. Wernicke's achievement was a huge achievement, according to the standards of 1899 and a hundred years later. In addition to ordinary trouble, the factory also works well, in some cases, than any of the start of the year are good.

Due to the loss of the record, in particular, the processed beet, the results of the first activity can only be estimated. Nearby Bay City reported a sugar content of 13%, compared to 11% reported elsewhere in the state. An average of 12% of Caro harvested crops was then applied, indicating that the new plant recovered 66% of the sugar in the sugar beet, compared to 61% of the harvest at Benton, but Alma harvested 72%.

But the encouraging result may be that the simple fact is that Wernicke failed to fulfill the three conditions stated in the contract and that failure would lead to a hurry to walk to the shed. First of all, the factory for 30 days without cutting 500 tons per day, guaranteed. Second, the cost was more than three cents per pound; and third, the factory was not prepared to accept sugar beets as promised on September 1, 1899. In addition, according to the company, the production of sugar lacks sellability, most of which is lost in the process. At the time, Wernicke learned the lawsuit nature of the Michigan Pioneer Sugar Manufacturers

It might be possible that the company would take into account Wernicke's special efforts, in addition to the directors considering business losses because the state of Michigan decided to refuse to pay in 1899 On the 1st of the month after the production of any sugar commitment to the reward. The bonus from the US Treasury provided a density of 1 cent per pound of sugar produced under candy payments, but has been declared unconstitutional by the Comptroller, which was later supported by the Supreme Court of the State. This decision is a disaster for investors, because 1 minute is roughly equivalent to one-third of operating costs. The Supreme Court of the United States refused to hear the case, causing people to mistakenly believe that the decision to maintain the lower court's decision.

When the time went to Wernicke, the directors of the company chose as their legal advocate Charles Evans Hughes, a brilliant jurist destined to become the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. While preparing his day for Wernicke in court, Hughes learned German and Beet Sugar from the ground, enabling him to cross-examine German engineers as expert witnesses. According to James Howell, former Caro plant supervisor, Hughes spent a month at the Caro plant exploring every corner and corner until he became an expert in design and function

According to Gutleben, the subsequent case led to Wernicke's $ 300,000 in debt was confiscated, accounting for 75 percent of the contract price, resulting in Wernicke's complete withdrawal from the construction of a sugar factory in the United States. Howell, who wrote six years before Gutleben, gave a slightly changed account. He said Wernicke remitted $ 150,000 and reverted $ 125,000 in the construction contract.

Soon after, Oxnard Construction Company appeared in Caro, affecting the change in the factory, and these changes were unimportant in the original building . American-made centrifuges, which are used by the US Machine Tool Company, are commonly referred to as "Amtool" in the industry, replacing the German design. A major change has nothing to do with the flaws in the original design. This is the addition of Steffen's method of removing sugar from molasses. One of the main problems of this era is the high ratio of sugars, the proportion of which escapes from the manufacturing process and ends its mixing with molasses, which are the colloidal syrup left in the manufacturing process.

The second year's financial results are impressive. The new centrifuges and the Steffens process (known in the industry as Steffen's House) proved their worth. 70 million pounds of sugar through the warehouse, 320,000 tons of sugar beet products contain 14% sugar. Factories extracted 243 pounds of sugar from beets per tonne, up 35 percent from the first year. The new Steffen method not only recovers sugar from about 20 tons of molasses produced every day, but also sugar from the molasses left over from the previous crop

Henry Oxnard discovered a management dynasty in Carlo

Henry Oxnard did more than just redesign a factory when he tried to solve the problems that existed in Carlo; he founded a management dynasty that would not only permanently affect the Caro plant, but would also affect the United States Beet sugar industry. Nearly a decade ago, in 1891, Henry Oxnard recruited some of the finest and best educated technicians from Germany and France, arrived in the United States after forming the core of a cadre that would set up training for Americans of sugar Production

Formed his first level of management, then Oxnard continues to serve the mechanical engineering department. For overall construction management responsibilities, he turned to A. P. Cooper, who worked as an assistant engineer at the Ames Pioneer Factory in Nebraska. Cooper promptly surveyed the Carlo factory and launched a plan to influence the changes so that a draft of the duo accompanied him to Carlo. One is Daniel Gutleben, who will one day rise in the ranks of the top-ranking factory operators and then remains the record-bearers of the history of the beet industry

Oxnard then firmly seizes two top layers, a group of promising Workers, who lack adequate training, but if given appropriate training, they can show a high degree of satisfaction.

Charles Sieland, a thirty-six-year-old German employed Oxnard to oversee change, rejecting his compatriots tend to deduct information, in addition to financial rewards. He adopted the philosophy of Henry Oxnard to share information. Carlo, in his heart, is not only a factory, but also a university. A long list of factory technicians and managers began their careers in Caro's careers, and then passed them on to others when they moved from the factory to the factory. One of them was William Hoodless, who was the son of the same Richard Hoodless, who started rolling at Carlow for the factory. A few years later he was in charge of all the plant operations and shortly afterwards accepted the president of the Pennsylvania Sugar Factory in Philadelphia.

In 1906, Sugar Trust merged most of its Michigan companies into one company, Sugar, Michigan Company, to restore the name of the first company to build sugar mills in Michigan. The new Michigan sugar companies include Alamos, Bay City Michigan Sugar, Peninsula Sugar Refining, Carrollton Sugar, Croswell Sugar and Sebewaing Sugar. At that time, the Fund held a majority stake in the shareholders through the agent, in 1905 the year before the completion of the Blissfield Sugar Company, and the East Tawas Sugar Company (a company) in 1904 as a business investment failure, holding a fine Kilby sugar Plant trust is used in Chaska, Minnesota, and it will operate in the next sixty-six years. Carrollton Sugar Company also includes the already discontinued Saginaw Sugar company, the company has another Kilby-built factory, the factory shipped to Sterling, Colorado, from 1905 to 1985. Charles Warren served as president of Michigan Sugar Corporation, 1925.

By 1920, the sun had been in the sugar trust. After being attacked by various federal agencies, including the US Department of Justice and the Interstate Commerce Commission, American Sugar Corporation has gradually sold many of its components to private investors, and Michigan has relinquished its grip on sugar. . Their entire board of directors was made up of Michigan residents, and none of them had any contact with the Sugar Trust, except President Charles B. Warren, whose interests are now first of all the ambassadors of Japan, 1921-1922 and then Mexico in 1924. He lost a campaign in 1925 to become the US Attorney General in a politically charged Senate vote to influence Warren's past ties with sugar trusts. His desire to play a part in the public sector left him in the presidential office, led by William Wallace, who served as vice president and general manager of 3D. The first deputy vice-chairman and the second vice-chairman were not involved in the day-to-day activities of several key attackers on the shareholder list.

Caro Survival Time and Variations

Thanks to James Howell, who started the Caro in 1944, he prepared a record of history in 1948, and it was learned that Caro began to plant sugar beets in the factory in 1937, An important step forward to the plant can be seen in the needs of other crops, while previously it was necessary to provide beets as they needed

During the 1928-1937 Caro plant, almost all Michigan beet sugar mills suffered large Depression of the adverse effects. However, from 1937 until now, Caro reported a steady improvement in modernization and expansion. In 1944, a centrifuge for sugar and a new pulp warehouse were added. Centrifuges are devices designed to filter syrup through a screen to separate the syrup from the syrup, rotating at a sufficient (typically about 1,200 rpm) speed to produce centrifugal force, pushing the syrup through rotation in the basket. The sugar crystals remain in the basket, and the syrup is recycled through the process to recover more sugar. These and other changes have resulted in an average daily cut rate from 500 tons per day in the original design to more than 3600 tons per 24 hours, which makes it a relatively small plant compared to other ranges in the US from

If Carlo had a secret survived for more than 100 years, it was the factory Oxnard that was rebuilt for many years and remained today, to meet the challenges as they emerged, gaining support from their communities, and when the opportunity and opportunity were united to force change change. In this way, America's oldest sugar beet factory hangs in the fast-paced industry


HOWELL, James, Michigan Sugar Company History of the Caro Plant, May 1, 1948 Caro Factory History Unpublished account

GUTTLEBEN, Daniel Sugar Rangers – 1954, 182 pages About Sugar Trust Report on the purchase of sugar mills, 177 on Sebewaing Sugar and operational results by Bay Cities Duplicating Company, San Francisco, California

MARQUIS, Albert Nelson, editors, The Book of Detroiters, pp. 465-468 , Marquis & Company, Chicago, 1908 – Biography of Charles B. Warren

MICHIGAN Annual Report, Michigan Archives, Lansing, Michigan:

Peninsula Sugar Refining Company submitted 1904 and Michigan Sugar Company to submit 1924

Modi John, on the truth of the trust, the reference sugar trust began in 1902 in Michigan to buy beet sugar company comments, 1892 Dividend Payments from 1900 to 1900

United States of America. In the US District Court for the Southern District of New York

United States vs. American Sugar Refining Co., et al. Page 1974, Petitioners Exhibition # 1494

Copyright 2009, Thomas Mahar, All Rights Reserved