Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior
Consumer behavior refers to the selection, purchase and consumption of goods and services to meet their needs. Consumer behavior involves a different process. Initially, the consumer tried to find the goods he wanted to consume, and then he only chose those who promise more utility. After choosing a product, the consumer estimates that he can spend the available funds. Finally, the consumer analyzes the current price of the commodity and makes a decision on the goods he should consume. At the same time, there are other factors that affect the purchase of consumer social, cultural, personal and psychological factors. These factors are explained as follows:
1. Cultural factors
Consumer behavior is deeply influenced by cultural factors such as buyer culture, subculture and social class
Basically, culture is every Is an important reason for society, is the people's ideas and behavior. The impact of culture on purchasing behavior varies from country to country, so marketers must be very careful to analyze the culture of different groups, regions and even countries.
Each culture contains subcultures of different religions, ethnic groups, geographical areas, ethnic groups and so on. Marketers can use these groups by dividing the market into different parts. For example, marketers can design products based on the needs of specific geographic groups
• Social Classes
Every society has some form of social class that is important to marketers because The behavior of a social class is similar. In this way, marketing activities can be adjusted according to different social classes. Here we should note that the social class depends not only on income but also on other factors such as wealth, education, occupation and so on.
2. Social factors
Social factors also affect consumers' buying behavior. The important social factors are: reference group, family, role and status.
• Reference Group
The reference group has the potential to form a personal attitude or behavior. The impact of the reference group varies by product and brand. For example, such as clothes, shoes, cars and other products are visible, then the impact of the reference group will be great.
Buyer behavior is strongly influenced by family members, including opinion leaders (who influence others due to his particular skills, knowledge or other characteristics). So the marketer is trying to find the role and influence of the husband, wife and child. If a particular product's purchase decision is influenced by a wife, the marketer will try to target the woman in the ad. Here we should note that the role of the purchase changes with changes in consumer lifestyles
• Roles and status
Everyone has different roles and status in society, depending on the group , The club, the family, the organization he belongs to. For example, a woman is acting as a finance manager in an organization. Now she is playing two roles, one is the financial manager and a mother. So her purchase decision will be affected by her role and status.
3. Personal factors
Personal factors may also affect consumer behavior. Some of the important personal factors that affect buying behavior are: lifestyle, economic status, occupation, age, personality and self-concept
Age and life cycle have a potential impact on consumer buying behavior. It is clear that consumers have changed the purchase of goods and services over time.
A person's career has a significant effect on his buying behavior. For example, an organization's marketing manager will try to buy a business suit while the same organization of low-level staff will buy a solid work suit
• Economic situation
Consumer economic conditions affect his purchase behavior. If the customer's income and savings are high, then he will buy more expensive products. On the other hand, a low-income and safer person will buy cheap products.
The customer's lifestyle is another factor influencing consumers' buying behavior. Lifestyle is a way in which a person lives in a society and is expressed by the things around him / her.
Personality varies from person to person, time and place changes, determined by the interests of customers, opinions, activities, and so on, forming his behavior and interaction patterns around the world. Placement can therefore greatly affect the customer's buying behavior. In fact, personality is not what to wear; but a man in different circumstances the overall behavior. It has different characteristics, such as: advantages, aggressiveness, self-confidence, etc., can be used to determine the specific product or service consumer behavior.
4. Psychological factors
affect consumer buying behavior has four important psychological factors. These are: perception, motivation, learning, beliefs and attitudes
Motivation levels also affect the customer's buying behavior. Everyone has different needs, such as physical needs, biological needs, social needs and so on. The nature of demand is that some of them are the most urgent, while others are least urgent. Thus, when more urgent counselors seek satisfaction, they need to be a motive.
Choosing, organizing and interpreting information to produce meaningful world experience is called perception. There are three different perceptual processes that are selective attention, selective distortion and selective retention. In the case of selective attention, marketers try to attract the attention of customers. In the case of distortions, the customer will try to interpret the information in a way that the customer has already believed. Similarly, if selectively retained, marketers try to retain information that supports their beliefs.
• Faith and Attitude
Customers have specific beliefs and attitudes towards various products. Because this belief and attitude constitute a brand image, affecting consumer buying behavior, so the marketing staff are interested. Marketers can change their beliefs and attitudes by conducting special events in this area.